The vacuum tube photographs are part of an ongoing series on generative technologies–significant technological achievements with far reaching cultural and societal effects. The vacuum tube was part of the foundational technology of mass communications–radio, television, as well as computers. I believe one of the responsibilities of photographers is to bring forth the unseen and the unexamined. My father was an electrical and audio engineer, and I grew up surrounded by electrical components including crates of vacuum tubes. I found the endless variations of tubes fascinating–each one contained a small world of architectural forms. These typologies examine the subtle variations in technological and functional form.